Japonisme Back in Time

Previously mentioned, contents of Japonisme are a major influence on the development of Art Nouveau and Cubism, Here are some other notable figures in the field of art who been influenced by Japonisme. Note the elements taken from Japanese art by these western artists.


Vincent Van Gogh

He incorporated elements of ukiyo-e into his style. In many cases, he openly copied ukiyo-e. Van Gogh once said that Impressionists are “the Japanese of France”.


 (Japanese painting in the background)

Toulouse Lautrec

Lautrec was known as one of the paramount painters of the Post-Impressionist period who incorporated elements that can be found in Japanese art. Such as exaggerated eye expressions into his work.



(Japanese work)


 (Toulouse Lautrec’s work)

James Tissot

A French painter who experimented with Japonisme where he included Japanese related items and themes into his work.



Edgar Degas

Another Impressionist artist who incorporates Japanese compositional principles into his work.


William Merritt Chase

An American Impressionist painter who numerous of his works exhibit an uncanny Japanese aesthetic sense.


Edmund Charles Tarbell

An American Impressionist painter who was influenced by Japanese Aesthetics.


George Hendrik Breitner

A Dutch painter and photographer who’s painting of the Girl in Red Kimono was considered a high point of the Japonisme movement.



 Édouard Manet

Manet was one of the founders of Impressionism while his style was influenced by Japanese art.




Japan Talk, 2016. 8 Great Artists Who Were Inspired by Japan. [ONLINE] Available at : http://www.japan-talk.com/jt/new/8-great-artists-who-were-inspired-by-Japan [Accessed 10 June 2016].

Jay, 2016. Japonisme. [ONLINE] Available at : http://thouarthistory.blogspot.my/2009/03/japonisme.html [Accessed 10 June 2016].

Japonisme Back in Time

Japonisme movement

Japan today is a successful and well-developed nation, leading in the fields of scientific research, particularly technology, machinery and biomedical research. Thou its past which are embedded in history books and archives has left its mark on this nation, both good and bad. Check out the video for a really quick pick up on Japan’s history.




Even so through history, its cultural heritage has been passed down from one generation to the next. One of those cultural practice would be Japanese art which has managed to survive, adapt and improve over the past decades. They cover a extensive range of art styles and media which includes ancient pottery, sculpture, ink painting and calligraphy on silk and paper, ukiyo-e paintings and woodblock prints, kiri-e, kirigami, origami, and more recent years manga which is a modern Japanese cartooning, anime, comics, along with a many of other types of works of art.  

Today, Japanese influenced art and media can be seen all around the world both commercially and aesthetically. This influence is known as Japonism which is defined as the influence of Japanese art, fashion and aesthetics on Western culture (Le Dictionnaire, 2013).

Trade between Europe and Japan goes back several centuries. In 1854, Japanese crafts and works of art began to be exported in large quantities to the western parts of the world when American Commodore Matthew Perry opened Japan to trade with the West. From there the Japanese works were presented at many international fairs and exhibitions.(Office of the Historian, 2016).

The term Japonism dates back in 1872 when Philippe Burty, a French art critic coined the term to describe the vogue in Japanese art then current in Europe and contributed to the popularization of this influence (Weisberg, 1975). The Japanese wood-block prints and paintings known as ukiyo-e became a major source of inspiration for many European Impressionist painters where the Japanese motifs and styles can found in Western artist works like Toulouse-Lautrec posters and Van Gogh paintings such as ‘Le Père Tanguy’ and Almond Blossom.(We will see a couple more exhibits in the following post).

Japonisme was seen not only as a display for Japanese goods, but among artists as a preference for the subject matter, style, and patterning of Japanese art, especially woodblock prints as quoted by Andrew C. Weislogel (2016) a Assistant Curator / Master Teacher at the Cornell University. Weilogel also explained on a deeper level that the works of artists such as Pierre Bonnard, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, and Edouard Vuillard and the infiltration of Japanese compositional techniques and bold color combinations in their work played an important role in European art’s move toward abstraction and expressionism. Later in the years, the characteristic that could be found on the famous ukiyo-e went on to be a major influence on the development of Art Nouveau and Cubism.

Bill Wurtz, 2016. History of Japan-Youtube. [ONLINE VIDEO] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mh5LY4Mz15o. [ Accessed 7 June 2016].

Weisberg, Gabriel P, 1975. Aspects of Japonisme. [PDF] Available at: http://www.brill.com/sites/default/files/ftp/downloads/36428_Introduction.pdf. [Accessed 7 June 2016].

Office of the Historian, 2016. The United States and the Opening to Japan, 1853. [ONLINE] Available at: https://history.state.gov/milestones/1830-1860/opening-to-japan. [Accessed 9 June 2016].

Cornell University, 2016. JAPONISME: EUROPEAN ARTISTS AND THE ALLURE OF JAPAN. [ONLINE] Available at: http://museum.cornell.edu/exhibitions/japonisme-european-artists-and-allure-japan [Accessed 8 June 2016].


Japonisme movement

Self review


1) Essay choice (Topic 2 )
2) Identification of keywords and experts (tick )
3) Breakdown of the research domain and subtopics (tick )
4) Generation of related questions and short answers ( )
5) Identification of some assumptions and biases (tick )
6) Reviewing of the research literature (tick )
7) Experimental /creative exploration of the question ( )
8) Relate the question to other lecture topics or courses (tick )
9) Exploring possible thesis statements (tick )
10) Strategizing the essay structure or outline (tick )
11) Work schedule ( )
12) Reflections on or tutorial sessions, etc. (tick )
13) Summary of blog entries (tick )

I would say that this topic is quite broad and narrowing down the relevant information has been a challenge for me as various sources and research materials would tend to point me in a couple of different directions but sticking to the tutorial notes from class, I managed to organise my research which in return made me to post my contents later for proper content and reanalyzing my own work.

Self review

The conclusion

I forgot to add this on to my earlier post which has to do with the population and cultural factors which has to with people moving towards the modern approach but here it is .



The modern media has its foundations built on traditional media and definitely has improved services and caters to the generations born in the era of technology. They key success, if modern media is to ever succeed in taking over traditional media, is advanced technology of  the internet. Although social networking through new media has increased crime rates, false information being spread and bias groups are on the run, it is one of the shortcomings that can be eradicated. With technology, new media has definitely exceeded the abilities of traditional media as an advertising alternative and smoothed the process of gathering concrete information for news articles. Ease in obtaining information and flexibility has also encouraged traditional media followers to convert to new media.


Reference list

Entertainment on the internet and in traditional media | The Swedes and the internet 2014. [ONLINE] Available at: http://en.soi2014.se/entertainment/entertainment-on-the-internet-and-in-traditional-media/. [Accessed 18 January 2016].

The conclusion

The difference between both media revolutions

*On this section we will be classifying both the first and second revolution under the traditional revolution and the third as the modern revolution just to keep it straight forward.


While Traditional media is a one way conversation with its audience in a closed system, modern media allows a two way conversation with an open system. Information passed on from modern media are usually transparent and authentic, whereas traditional media tends to be more polished as censorship comes into play, making the contents more opaque to the audience. The communication between audience is unstructured as anyone could share or deliver the information though the network but traditionally it was controlled due to various factors like the geographical factors and cultural influences.

Professional journalist and writers were the only ones who could generate the contents back then while today everyone is a journalist and could generate their own contents based of their sources which can be done in real time while old media has to pre produce their contents a day before distribution. Traditional media has always been mass market to it’s audience despite the factors and generation gaps while new media has been able to tackle that problem with one on one marketing. The language used to approach today’s audience through modern media is rather informal compared to traditional ways where it is all mostly formal.

The platforms to distribute contents and information on modern media are free and the community decides what should be the top news unlike traditional ways where the economics of the country and high ranking individuals make those decision as they are paying for the platform to distribute the contents.

Moving from traditional to modern: The audience

As we are stepping in to the modern age, traditional methods are getting more obsolete as the people adapt to the technology they created where they can see the opportunities and benefits they can receive from this modern approach. Geographical area, cultural and political boundaries plays an important role in this move of modernization as it can be seen in more developed countries. Also as mention previously on my other post, the ever growing demand of the commercial, business, scientific and military sector continues to persuade the use of modern approaches to help be on par with other developing countries. A network society is formed compromising of individuals, family, the community, societies, organisations and the world. Thou some still prefer traditional ways as for reasons that is debatable and has some valid points which modern media could use.


In the advertising industry

While most traditional media are designed and targeted for mass distribution and consumption, modern media on the other hand involves a one on one marketing strategy.  Meaning messages or information passed through modern media has to appear tailored to the individual.  While you may have a broad target market, each network community may vary from one another. Example would be the 4 chan community against the tumblr community which has very different ways and ideology of receiving and distribution of contents.

Traditional media provides value through subsidizing content through free TV and radio programs, lower-cost magazines, and other opportunities for it’s audience.  In exchange for this content or other value, they allow advertisers to interrupt our day to tell us about their products. Unlike modern media where everything are already free and no subsidizing required.

News today is increasingly a shared, social experience. As stated by a staff of the Pew Research Center: Journalism and Media ” Half of Americans say they rely on the people around them to find out at least some of the news they need to know” Online news users get news at least a few times a week through emails, automatic updates or posts from social networking sites.

Technology makes it easy for the actions of citizens to influence a story’s total impact even thou most original reports are still delivered by traditional journalists. Such example would be the report of the earthquake that took place in Japan which was topped by the news of the attacks that took place in France, both happening on the same time. Bloggers or online journalist tend to tackle stories that elicited emotion, concerned individual or group rights or triggered ideological passion(Pew Research Center: Journalism and Media ,2010). Often these were stories that people could edit and then share in the social forum. And unlike in some other types of media, the bias here does not lean strongly to one side or the other.



Distribution of information

The difference between these forms of traditional media and new media largely has to do with the distribution.

Traditional media requires a relatively complex form of distribution. An example would be the distribution process for a traditional newspaper. First coming out from the printing press then to the delivery trucks which then delivers it to the local distributors and from there the people gets their news. The process is rather length and lots could happen in between the process and this is all for a product where the information that remains the same and cannot be edited after being produced. Another example would be the radio where the transmission towers are sending out information at one particular time with the possibility that many people or no one is listening to it at all.

New media has changes the distribution process where information are broken up into bits and bytes and distributed through the various network connected receiving mediums. As This has also helped reduce the cost of communication significantly while making sharing and storing of information easier all thanks to the introduction of computers being available to everyone(Pridmore,2013). As Pridmore (2013) states “Computers have of course played an essential role in this.”(p.2).

New media and traditional media serve same functions and still targeting the people as it’s audience by keeping us informed about the latest happenings which needs the same tedious work of editing and censor shipping before distribution. However there is still variations in both media such as the availability, network, publication time and more. Also with the drastic increase of internet users today, censorship of contents are somewhat rare as there are many websites to filter through unlike traditional media where there is a manageable amount to handle. Information being passed around online tend to be disseminated at a faster rate than traditional media because of its short duration requirement to put it up. Finally, modern media has provided the opportunity for users to socialise and form a network community unlike traditional media where there is no room for all of those as everything is publicised.



Reference list

Inna, 2011. PR Tips: What are the differences between traditional and new media. [ONLINE] Available at:http://prtips2011.blogspot.my/2011/03/traditional-vs-new-media.html. [Accessed 18 January 2016].

Benjamin Henson, 2013.Old Media vs. New Media. [ONLINE] Available at:http://www.slideshare.net/eijikun/self-study-sky-ben-2013. [Accessed 18 January 2016].

Jason Pridmore, 2013. New media and social media – what’s the difference v 2.0 | Jason Pridmore – Academia.edu. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.academia.edu/1122278/New_media_and_social_media_-_whats_the_difference_v_2.0. [Accessed 18 January 2016].

The difference between both media revolutions

History of the Internet and how it took over Traditional media

To know how the internet made it’s arrival in the third media revolution is to know how the internet got here in the first place and what it actually is. I have gone through the facts and summarized it for the benefit of the audience and making it ‘straight to the point’.

The Internet  is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link billions of devices worldwide which has revolutionized the computer and communications world like nothing before(Wikipedia, 2015). The invention of the telegraph, telephone, radio, and computer has set the stage for this unprecedented integration of capabilities. The Internet is at once a world-wide broadcasting capability, a mechanism for information distribution, and a medium for  individuals to gain social experience with one another in their network communities without the regards for geographic location.
We all were taught that the internet was created in 1969 when the Department of Defense introduced ARPANET but really it goes way back to accomplish that. 
On 1836 the Telegraph was the first method of communication which was patented by Cooke and Wheatstone using Morse Code which a series of dots and dashes used to communicate between humans.  It Revolutionized human (tele)communications. 


From 1858-1866 Transatlantic cable came into play which allowed direct instantaneous communication across the atlantic. This is relevant as till today cables connect all continents and are still a main hub of telecommunications.

1876, The telephone was introduced where it provided the backbone of Internet connections today. By 1957 , the USSR launched Sputnik, first artificial earth satellite. This became the start of global telecommunications. Till today Satellites play an important role in transmitting all sorts of data today.
In response, US forms the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) within the Department of Defense (DoD) to establish US lead in science and technology applicable to the military. By 1962 Packet-switching (PS) networks developed where packets are the method to transfer data through the network. ARPA did this so that information and data sent are hard to detect as they are in tiny bits which can only be formed at the receiving end, increasing the security and reducing the risk of info being leaked. All this lead to the birth of ARPANET in 1969.
By 1972, people started communicating over the network as electronic mail was invented. The following year computers are able to connect more freely and easily thanks to progress which made global networking a reality. DCA and ARPA establishes the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP), as the protocol suite, commonly known as TCP/IP, for ARPANET in 1982 followed by the creation of other network host establishments such as the European UNIX network and UKExteral Gateway Protocol.

The Internet continued to grow with the creation of Domain Name Severs as the number of host network breaks 1000. On 1987, people started to realized the potential of the internet and Commercialization of Internet took place which lead to the creation of world.std.com,  the first commercial provider of Internet dial-up access. Also by this time ARPANET has been completely taken over by modernization process. The Wide Area Information Servers (WAIS) came into play and created a mechanism for indexing and accessing information on the Internet which lead to the creation of the World Wide Web and keyword searching which how we commonly find our data today.

By 1991, friendly User Interface for the World Wide Web is established with text based, menu-driven interface to access internet resources. No longer users have to remember tedious and complex computer commands. As the years go on the number of host breaks a whooping 1 million and the term “Surfing the Internet” came about. The business and media took notice of this and again commercialization took another beginning where online shopping and cyberbanking came in. Also local communities are being connected directly to the internet at this time.

By 1995 everything was commercialised with a number of network hosting companies go public to offer their service with Netscape leading the front. Search engines became more advance and the further development of the World Wide Web resulted in the creation of Mobile code (JAVA, JAVAscript, ActiveX),Virtual environments(VRML), and Collaborative tools (CU-SeeMe).

As for today, the development continues on making it much more easier for users to managed and form their own network communities while providing comfort of use and expanding the services the internet can provide.

Most traditional communications media, including telephony and television, are being reshaped or redefined by the Internet, giving birth to new services. Today they are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped .


Reference lists

Internet Society, 2012. Brief History of the Internet – Internet Timeline. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.internetsociety.org/internet/what-internet/history-internet/brief-history-internet. [Accessed 17 January 2016].

History of the Internet and how it took over Traditional media

The third revolution

Finally the third revolution happens and we are currently in it. Influenced by the ever growing commercial, business, scientific and military needs, the internet was created and made its arrival to the world and in media communication making it the most popular medium for information and content sharing with the whole world which are readily available through websites, and easily accessible through search engines.

Today, traditional media mediums are being remodeled or redefined by the Internet, giving way to a new method of media distribution and augmentation. Printed mediums are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into blogging and web feeds. The fastest developing segment on the internet was initially the the entertainment industry.  New forms of personal interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, and social networking have been enabled and accelerated by the growth of the Internet and technology (TorahTech,2016).  Major retailers and small artisans and traders have made use of the internet which help online shopping to expand .Also thanks to the global system of interconnected computer network that uses the internet protocol suite to link billions of users worldwide, commercial and financial services have benefited from it.


The third media revolution


A video on how the internet took over on WEB at a time ( WEB 1.0 and onward)


Reference list

Siliconrepublic, 2009. Can traditional media survive the third media revolution?. [ONLINE] Available at:https://www.siliconrepublic.com/life/2009/05/06/can-traditional-media-survive-the-third-media-revolution. [Accessed 14 January 2016].

Me the Media, 2008. – Third Media Revolution – YouTube. [ONLINE VIDEO] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jLm5HzAdLN0. [Accessed 14 January 2016].

davidEPN, 2008. Evolution Web 1.0, Web 2.0 to Web 3.0 – YouTube. [ONLINE VIDEO] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bsNcjya56v8. [Accessed 14 January 2016].

TorahTechs.com. 2016. What is the Internet? – TorahTechs.com. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.torahtechs.com/what-is-the-internet.html. [Accessed 19 January 2016].

The third revolution