To know how the internet made it’s arrival in the third media revolution is to know how the internet got here in the first place and what it actually is. I have gone through the facts and summarized it for the benefit of the audience and making it ‘straight to the point’.
- The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link billions of devices worldwide which has revolutionized the computer and communications world like nothing before(Wikipedia, 2015). The invention of the telegraph, telephone, radio, and computer has set the stage for this unprecedented integration of capabilities. The Internet is at once a world-wide broadcasting capability, a mechanism for information distribution, and a medium for individuals to gain social experience with one another in their network communities without the regards for geographic location.
- We all were taught that the internet was created in 1969 when the Department of Defense introduced ARPANET but really it goes way back to accomplish that.
- On 1836 the Telegraph was the first method of communication which was patented by Cooke and Wheatstone using Morse Code which a series of dots and dashes used to communicate between humans. It Revolutionized human (tele)communications.
- From 1858-1866 Transatlantic cable came into play which allowed direct instantaneous communication across the atlantic. This is relevant as till today cables connect all continents and are still a main hub of telecommunications.
- 1876, The telephone was introduced where it provided the backbone of Internet connections today. By 1957 , the USSR launched Sputnik, first artificial earth satellite. This became the start of global telecommunications. Till today Satellites play an important role in transmitting all sorts of data today.
- In response, US forms the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) within the Department of Defense (DoD) to establish US lead in science and technology applicable to the military. By 1962 Packet-switching (PS) networks developed where packets are the method to transfer data through the network. ARPA did this so that information and data sent are hard to detect as they are in tiny bits which can only be formed at the receiving end, increasing the security and reducing the risk of info being leaked. All this lead to the birth of ARPANET in 1969.
- By 1972, people started communicating over the network as electronic mail was invented. The following year computers are able to connect more freely and easily thanks to progress which made global networking a reality. DCA and ARPA establishes the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP), as the protocol suite, commonly known as TCP/IP, for ARPANET in 1982 followed by the creation of other network host establishments such as the European UNIX network and UKExteral Gateway Protocol.
The Internet continued to grow with the creation of Domain Name Severs as the number of host network breaks 1000. On 1987, people started to realized the potential of the internet and Commercialization of Internet took place which lead to the creation of world.std.com, the first commercial provider of Internet dial-up access. Also by this time ARPANET has been completely taken over by modernization process. The Wide Area Information Servers (WAIS) came into play and created a mechanism for indexing and accessing information on the Internet which lead to the creation of the World Wide Web and keyword searching which how we commonly find our data today.
By 1991, friendly User Interface for the World Wide Web is established with text based, menu-driven interface to access internet resources. No longer users have to remember tedious and complex computer commands. As the years go on the number of host breaks a whooping 1 million and the term “Surfing the Internet” came about. The business and media took notice of this and again commercialization took another beginning where online shopping and cyberbanking came in. Also local communities are being connected directly to the internet at this time.
As for today, the development continues on making it much more easier for users to managed and form their own network communities while providing comfort of use and expanding the services the internet can provide.
- Most traditional communications media, including telephony and television, are being reshaped or redefined by the Internet, giving birth to new services. Today they are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped .
Internet Society, 2012. Brief History of the Internet – Internet Timeline. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.internetsociety.org/internet/what-internet/history-internet/brief-history-internet. [Accessed 17 January 2016].